The quick response is that there is, as yet, no universally agreed upon answer to this question. Giftedness, intelligence, and talent are fluid concepts and may look different in different contexts and cultures. Even within schools you will find a range of personal beliefs about the word “gifted,” which has become a term with multiple meanings and much nuance.
NAGC does not subscribe to any one theory of the nature of human abilities or their origins. We assert that there are children who demonstrate high performance, or who have the potential to do so, and that we have a responsibility to provide optimal educational experiences for talents to flourish in as many children as possible, for the benefit of the individual and the community.
—From the National Association for Gifted Children’s What Is Giftedness?
Although each child is a unique individual and does not fit exactly any generalized description, the following resources are provided to help teachers, administrators, parents, and the general public better understand giftedness